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支持python的分布式计算框架Ray详解

147 次  2021-08-17  分类 : python教程

项目地址:https://github.com/ray-project/ray

1、简介

Ray为构建分布式应用程序提供了一个简单、通用的API。Ray是一种分布式执行框架,便于大规模应用程序和利用先进的机器学习库。

Ray通过以下方式完成这项任务:

为构建和运行分布式应用程序提供简单的原语。

使最终用户能够并行化单个机器代码,而代码更改很少到零。

在核心Ray之上包含大量应用程序、库和工具,以支持复杂的应用程序。

2、安装

安装方式比较简单: pip install ray==1.4.1

[root@node2 ~]# pip install 'ray[default]'
Looking in indexes: https://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/simple/
Collecting ray[default]
  Downloading https://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/packages/13/ec/f727ddd3fbcdc6102eace62c9d5dd9d9ad8112d40eeb7de8783676aca24d/ray-1.4.1-cp36-cp36m-manylinux2014_x86_64.whl (51.6 MB)
     |████████████████████████████████| 51.6 MB 269 kB/s 
Collecting aiohttp
  Downloading https://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/packages/31/28/7b49246d7825c61e1a14306ab050e8eec48fcf5b009b19c8f6ea4e312467/aiohttp-3.7.4.post0-cp36-cp36m-manylinux2014_x86_64.whl (1.3 MB)
     |████████████████████████████████| 1.3 MB 121.5 MB/s 
Requirement already satisfied: dataclasses in /usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from ray[default]) (0.8)
Collecting protobuf>=3.15.3
  Downloading https://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/packages/53/4e/e2db88d0bb0bda6a879eea62fddbaf813719ce3770d458bc5580512d9c95/protobuf-3.17.3-cp36-cp36m-manylinux_2_5_x86_64.manylinux1_x86_64.whl (1.0 MB)
     |████████████████████████████████| 1.0 MB 136.1 MB/s 
Collecting jsonschema
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Collecting aioredis
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Collecting pydantic>=1.8
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Collecting numpy>=1.16
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  Downloading https://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/packages/b4/69/d8c849715171aeabd61af7da080fdc60948b5a396d2422f1f4672e43d008/gpustat-0.6.0.tar.gz (78 kB)
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Collecting redis>=3.5.0
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Collecting aiohttp-cors
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Collecting py-spy>=0.2.0
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     |████████████████████████████████| 3.1 MB 131 kB/s 
Requirement already satisfied: requests in /usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from ray[default]) (2.24.0)
Collecting colorama
  Downloading https://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/packages/44/98/5b86278fbbf250d239ae0ecb724f8572af1c91f4a11edf4d36a206189440/colorama-0.4.4-py2.py3-none-any.whl (16 kB)
Collecting filelock
  Downloading https://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/packages/93/83/71a2ee6158bb9f39a90c0dea1637f81d5eef866e188e1971a1b1ab01a35a/filelock-3.0.12-py3-none-any.whl (7.6 kB)
Collecting prometheus-client>=0.7.1
  Downloading https://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/packages/09/da/4e8471ff825769581593b5b84769d32f58e5373b59fccaf355d3529ad530/prometheus_client-0.11.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl (56 kB)
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Collecting msgpack<2.0.0,>=1.0.0
  Downloading https://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/packages/0c/0d/b1d9d32d03ce38ba5e2a37fbae850afd4530a14cc441e8335f1865a03705/msgpack-1.0.2-cp36-cp36m-manylinux1_x86_64.whl (272 kB)
     |████████████████████████████████| 272 kB 127.6 MB/s 
Requirement already satisfied: click>=7.0 in /usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from ray[default]) (7.1.2)
Collecting opencensus
  Downloading https://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/packages/18/59/12044123133d000f705383ad98579aeb0dd82d66b33a254a21b54bf0d6bb/opencensus-0.7.13-py2.py3-none-any.whl (127 kB)
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Collecting grpcio>=1.28.1
  Downloading https://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/packages/eb/32/332a2bb0cee0d4040331952c5ef3d040d119a15b3c622b60bdcbe768bded/grpcio-1.39.0-cp36-cp36m-manylinux2014_x86_64.whl (4.3 MB)
     |████████████████████████████████| 4.3 MB 417 kB/s 
Collecting colorful
  Downloading https://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/packages/b0/8e/e386e248266952d24d73ed734c2f5513f34d9557032618c8910e605dfaf6/colorful-0.5.4-py2.py3-none-any.whl (201 kB)
     |████████████████████████████████| 201 kB 113.9 MB/s 
Requirement already satisfied: six>=1.5.2 in /usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from grpcio>=1.28.1->ray[default]) (1.15.0)
Requirement already satisfied: typing-extensions>=3.7.4.3 in /usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from pydantic>=1.8->ray[default]) (3.10.0.0)
Collecting multidict<7.0,>=4.5
  Downloading https://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/packages/a1/35/b22524d6b9cacfb4c5eff413a069bbc17c6ea628e54da5c6c989998ced5f/multidict-5.1.0-cp36-cp36m-manylinux2014_x86_64.whl (141 kB)
     |████████████████████████████████| 141 kB 120.6 MB/s 
Collecting idna-ssl>=1.0
  Downloading https://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/packages/46/03/07c4894aae38b0de52b52586b24bf189bb83e4ddabfe2e2c8f2419eec6f4/idna-ssl-1.1.0.tar.gz (3.4 kB)
Collecting attrs>=17.3.0
  Downloading https://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/packages/20/a9/ba6f1cd1a1517ff022b35acd6a7e4246371dfab08b8e42b829b6d07913cc/attrs-21.2.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl (53 kB)
     |████████████████████████████████| 53 kB 3.9 MB/s 
Requirement already satisfied: chardet<5.0,>=2.0 in /usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from aiohttp->ray[default]) (3.0.4)
Collecting yarl<2.0,>=1.0
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Collecting async-timeout<4.0,>=3.0
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Requirement already satisfied: idna>=2.0 in /usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from idna-ssl>=1.0->aiohttp->ray[default]) (2.10)
Collecting hiredis
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Collecting nvidia-ml-py3>=7.352.0
  Downloading https://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/packages/6d/64/cce82bddb80c0b0f5c703bbdafa94bfb69a1c5ad7a79cff00b482468f0d3/nvidia-ml-py3-7.352.0.tar.gz (19 kB)
Collecting psutil
  Downloading https://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/packages/da/82/56cd16a4c5f53e3e5dd7b2c30d5c803e124f218ebb644ca9c30bc907eadd/psutil-5.8.0-cp36-cp36m-manylinux2010_x86_64.whl (291 kB)
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Collecting blessings>=1.6
  Downloading https://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/packages/03/74/489f85a78247609c6b4f13733cbf3ba0d864b11aa565617b645d6fdf2a4a/blessings-1.7-py3-none-any.whl (18 kB)
Requirement already satisfied: setuptools in /usr/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from jsonschema->ray[default]) (39.2.0)
Collecting pyrsistent>=0.14.0
  Downloading https://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/packages/6c/19/1af501f6f388a40ede6d0185ba481bdb18ffc99deab0dd0d092b173bc0f4/pyrsistent-0.18.0-cp36-cp36m-manylinux1_x86_64.whl (117 kB)
     |████████████████████████████████| 117 kB 138.2 MB/s 
Requirement already satisfied: importlib-metadata in /usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from jsonschema->ray[default]) (4.3.0)
Requirement already satisfied: zipp>=0.5 in /usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from importlib-metadata->jsonschema->ray[default]) (3.4.1)
Collecting opencensus-context==0.1.2
  Downloading https://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/packages/f1/33/990f1bd9e7ee770fc8d3c154fc24743a96f16a0e49e14e1b7540cc2fdd93/opencensus_context-0.1.2-py2.py3-none-any.whl (4.4 kB)
Collecting google-api-core<2.0.0,>=1.0.0
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Collecting contextvars
  Downloading https://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/packages/83/96/55b82d9f13763be9d672622e1b8106c85acb83edd7cc2fa5bc67cd9877e9/contextvars-2.4.tar.gz (9.6 kB)
Collecting google-auth<2.0dev,>=1.25.0
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Collecting packaging>=14.3
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Collecting googleapis-common-protos<2.0dev,>=1.6.0
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Collecting setuptools
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Requirement already satisfied: pytz in /usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from google-api-core<2.0.0,>=1.0.0->opencensus->ray[default]) (2020.1)
Collecting cachetools<5.0,>=2.0.0
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Collecting pyasn1-modules>=0.2.1
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Collecting rsa<5,>=3.1.4
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Collecting pyparsing>=2.0.2
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Collecting pyasn1<0.5.0,>=0.4.6
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Requirement already satisfied: certifi>=2017.4.17 in /usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from requests->ray[default]) (2020.6.20)
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Collecting immutables>=0.9
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Using legacy 'setup.py install' for idna-ssl, since package 'wheel' is not installed.
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Using legacy 'setup.py install' for nvidia-ml-py3, since package 'wheel' is not installed.
Using legacy 'setup.py install' for contextvars, since package 'wheel' is not installed.
Installing collected packages: pyasn1, setuptools, rsa, pyparsing, pyasn1-modules, protobuf, multidict, immutables, cachetools, yarl, packaging, idna-ssl, googleapis-common-protos, google-auth, contextvars, attrs, async-timeout, pyrsistent, psutil, opencensus-context, nvidia-ml-py3, hiredis, google-api-core, blessings, aiohttp, redis, pyyaml, pydantic, py-spy, prometheus-client, opencensus, numpy, msgpack, jsonschema, grpcio, gpustat, filelock, colorama, aioredis, aiohttp-cors, ray, colorful
  Attempting uninstall: setuptools
    Found existing installation: setuptools 39.2.0
    Uninstalling setuptools-39.2.0:
      Successfully uninstalled setuptools-39.2.0
    Running setup.py install for idna-ssl ... done
    Running setup.py install for contextvars ... done
    Running setup.py install for nvidia-ml-py3 ... done
    Running setup.py install for gpustat ... done
Successfully installed aiohttp-3.7.4.post0 aiohttp-cors-0.7.0 aioredis-1.3.1 async-timeout-3.0.1 attrs-21.2.0 blessings-1.7 cachetools-4.2.2 colorama-0.4.4 colorful-0.5.4 contextvars-2.4 filelock-3.0.12 google-api-core-1.31.0 google-auth-1.33.1 googleapis-common-protos-1.53.0 gpustat-0.6.0 grpcio-1.39.0 hiredis-2.0.0 idna-ssl-1.1.0 immutables-0.15 jsonschema-3.2.0 msgpack-1.0.2 multidict-5.1.0 numpy-1.19.5 nvidia-ml-py3-7.352.0 opencensus-0.7.13 opencensus-context-0.1.2 packaging-21.0 prometheus-client-0.11.0 protobuf-3.17.3 psutil-5.8.0 py-spy-0.3.7 pyasn1-0.4.8 pyasn1-modules-0.2.8 pydantic-1.8.2 pyparsing-2.4.7 pyrsistent-0.18.0 pyyaml-5.4.1 ray-1.4.1 redis-3.5.3 rsa-4.7.2 setuptools-57.4.0 yarl-1.6.3

3、单机

下面是不使用分布式的代码示例:

# test_ray.py
import ray
import cv2
import numpy

import time

#@ray.remote
def test(img):
    orb = cv2.AKAZE_create()
    kb = orb.detect(img, None)
    kp, des = orb.compute(img, kp)
    return des

# 不使用注解的方式
test_remote = ray.remote(test)

# 函数test 加注解时使用方式
# test_remote = test.remote(test)

img = cv2.imread("/tmp/test.jpg")

start_time = time.time()

for i in range(10):
    test(img)

print(time.time() - start_time)

运行:python test_ray.py

4、集群

如果需要启动集群模式,则需要先启动服务,选择一台机器作为主服务器,然后按虾米那命令启动:

[root@node1 ~]# ray start --head --port=8888      
Local node IP: 192.168.0.81
2021-07-28 09:58:44,051 INFO services.py:1274 -- View the Ray dashboard at http://127.0.0.1:8265

--------------------
Ray runtime started.
--------------------

Next steps
  To connect to this Ray runtime from another node, run
    ray start --address='192.168.0.81:8888' --redis-password='5241590000000000'

  Alternatively, use the following Python code:
    import ray
    ray.init(address='auto', _redis_password='5241590000000000')

  If connection fails, check your firewall settings and network configuration.

  To terminate the Ray runtime, run
    ray stop

可以看到里面提示具体的用法。此时通过ray的web界面,端口8265访问,看到已有一台机器。

然后在另外两台机启动客户端节点,保证各个节点的ray版本一致,查看版本:

# pip freeze |grep ray

版本不一致的话,要升级为一致:pip install -U ray, 此处选择的版本为1.4.1

从节点启动方式(密码可以在主节点启动时显示):

ray start --address='192.168.0.81:8888' --redis-password='5241590000000000'

改写程序,用于分布式:

# test_ray.py
import ray
import cv2
import numpy

import time

@ray.remote
def test(img):
    orb = cv2.AKAZE_create()
    kb = orb.detect(img, None)
    kp, des = orb.compute(img, kp)
    return des

# 不使用注解的方式
#test_remote = ray.remote(test)

# 函数test 加注解时使用方式
test_remote = test.remote(test)

if __name__ == "__main__":
    ray.init(address='auto', _redis_password='5241590000000000')
    start_time = time.time()
    img = cv2.imread("/tmp/test.jpg")
    futures = [test_remote.remote(img) for i in range(100)]
    ray.get(futures)
    start_time = time.time()
    print(time.time() - start_time)

在主节点运行程序,程序会在3台机器上启动。停止ray服务的方式:ray stop.

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